As it is already mentioned one of the components of the project is a project team. Project team is a group of people that are in charge to complete tasks and reach the goal. For more effective way of accomplishing the mission, tasks and activates are divided within different roles in the project team. On the Figure 2 Project roles and interested parties, you can see main individuals and group that are affected by the project’s processes.
Figure 2 Project roles and interested parties
Project team consists of the roles of the project manager, project team members and in the bigger teams, role of the team lead. The project manager is in charge to develop the project plan and manage team’s performance. He has to ensure that the team will finish the project on time without exceeding the budget but accomplishing the goal. Project manager is also responsible for documenting the project, communication, reporting, and risk management.
Every project manager should be a good leader. Desirable skills for the project manager are [ (4)]:
- Inspires a shared vision – visionary leaders enable people to feel they have a real stake in the project which is important for the motivation.
- Good communicator – leader has to be able to communicate goals, responsibilities, performance, expectations and feedback to his team so as to the organization.
- Integrity – his actions are modus operandi to the project team, he has to demand commitment to and the demonstration of the ethnical practices but he also has to behave accordingly.
- Enthusiasm – leader should be positive and enthusiastic in everything that he is doing, negative attitude can have a negative effect on the team members.
- Competence – team leader without appropriate knowledge about the technical or business area very often cannot respond to the expectations of the environment.
- Empathy – he has to understand his team members; they all have life outside the work.
- Ability to delegate tasks – he has to know how much work can be delegate to the people and how much work can they do in addition to reach the goal
- Cool under pressure – positive thinking is essential and there is no space for panic. Stressful events have to be considered interesting not complicated.
- Team-building skills – leader is a strong person who provides the substance that holds the team together in common purpose toward the right objective.
- Problem solving skills – every problem brings its opportunities; leader has to know how to take advantage of it without quitting.
Project team members are the group of persons that are executing the tasks. Each of them has its area of specialization and the tasks are allocated according to it.
On the bigger project another role can be added; the role of the team leader can help in providing the tasks and technical leadership of the project. The role can be obtained by one of the project team members.
In general, project team is responsible to:
- Complete the project within budget cost and time schedule
- Reach the goal of the project, estimate, manage and deliver requirements
- Develop the plan of the project and approach to its execution
- Identify tools and resources needed
- Identify risks and ways for the process improvement
- Participate in internal and external reviews
Sponsors manage and control the budget of a project. Project sponsor or/and the project director is a person that is the recipient of the project’s results; she is very often a part of the management team in the company. Project sponsor role is responsible for providing project team with the appropriate funding and resources. She communicates with the all interested parties balancing their needs. Project sponsor very often participate in planning sessions and review meetings.
A Customer role is responsible for verifying project needs, requirements and their compliance with the settled plan. Customers can be both internal and external and they can decide which of the requirements will be met and which one will be rejected.
Customers’ responsibilities are:
- Articulate, manage and validate requirements
- Review and approve project plan
- Review and track project status reports
Stakeholders are all the groups, individuals or organizations that have an impact on executing the project. Stakeholders can be project managers, project team members, sponsors, customer steering committee and other sides that are affected by the project outcomes. Stakeholders are both internal and external to the organization.
There is a group of the Key Stakeholders that are very important to each project. They have to be identified and special care has to be taken on them. Withdrawal of the Key Stakeholder can cause project fail. Key stakeholders are very often sponsors and customers.
4. Barry, Timothy R. Top 10 Qualities of a Project Manager. Project Smart. [Online] 2010. [Cited: 22 March 2011.] http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/top-10-qualities-project-manager.html